While quite a divisive topic in the C++ community, macros are widely used in legacy code and for niche cases in more modern code. As such, understanding them is crucial to understanding both the preprocessor and C++ as a whole.
This article will cover how macros work and the basics of using them in your code. Towards the end of the article I’ve also detailed how to use the preprocessor directly to see the output of macro replacements, a topic rarely discussed.
I won’t be covering every tiny detail about macros or when you should/shouldn’t use them in C++. If you’d like to see some common C++ use cases, Jonathan Boccara gives great examples in his article 3 Types of Macros That Improve C++ Code. The GCC preprocessor documentation also includes a section on macro pitfalls.
In general, most of the examples I present here are not considered the best applications of macros. That being said, they help illustrate many aspects of macros in straightforward ways.
What are Macros?
A macro is an identifier that represents some expression. The expression, sometimes called a “replacement list”, can be any snippet of code.
All instances of a macro are replaced (or expanded) by the preprocessor early
in the compilation process. This occurs specifically during phase
4 of compilation
in both C and C++. The
#define preprocessor directive is used to create
macros. The basic syntax is:
#define my_macro replacement list
The replacement list includes all content until the end of the line. This can be extended to multiple lines by placing a backslash at the end of the line:
Note that when the macro is expanded, the replacement list will all be put on one line.
In addition to being defined, macros can be undefined. This is the only way to apply scope to macros.
The above code would be expanded as follows:
This wouldn’t compile since
FANCY_MACRO is an undefined symbol in the first
and third instances.
The replacement list doesn’t even have to be valid code, technically. Macros are expanded during preprocessing, before the actual compiler sees the code. Therefore, if a macro replacement that would result in invalid code isn’t actually used after being defined, the compiler would never see the invalid definition. The definitions of all expanded macros, on the other hand, will be seen by the compiler and therefore must result in valid code.
Phases of Translation
Before discussing macros in more depth, I want to discuss the C/C++ language models as a whole. This should provide more context and intuition about how and why macros work.
First off, C and C++ are called “compiled” languages. This is because source code must be transformed into executable code before it can be run directly on a machine. This process of transforming source code is commonly called “compilation” in practice, but that isn’t quite right. The overall process is formally called translation, which includes preprocessing, compilation, and linking (along with some smaller steps in between).
The full translation process is a series of 8-9 phases (depending on the language and version) which are defined in the C/C++ ISO standards documents. While these documents specify in general terms what should be done in each phase, it intentionally does not dictate how these steps should be implemented. Therefore, different compiler toolchains (GCC, Clang, etc.) may work differently.
In this article, we’ll be discussing GCC’s implementation.
In GCC, the work of the translation process is actually divided up into separate discrete tools, each with their own binary. There is a preprocessor (cpp), a compiler (GCC), and a linker (ld). GCC, the compiler, is actually capable of running the other tools under the hood when you use it on the command line. Because of this, when a C/C++ programmer “compiles” their code, they generally just make a series of calls to GCC, rarely touching the other tools manually.
Okay, how does all of this relate to macros?
First, it suggests that we may be able to observe the effects of macro replacement directly. Second, it provides intuition for some details about exactly how macros work.
Because GCC separates its tools, it’s possible to run the preprocessor on the command line by itself. Since the preprocessor controls macro replacement, this allows users to see the result of macro replacement firsthand. I cover this later in the article.
As far as intuition building is concerned, let’s see the order of the tokenization, preprocessing, and compilation translation phases:
- Tokenization (of preprocessing tokens): step 3
- Preprocessing: step 4
- Compilation: step 7 (steps 7/8 in C++)
Tokenization technically occurs twice, once in step 3 and again in step 7 right before compilation. More below.
The most important takeaway here is that initial tokenization occurs before preprocessing, which occurs before compilation. Therefore, extraneous whitespace and comments are all removed before the preprocessor ever sees the code, and preprocessing occurs before the compiler ever sees the code.
From this information we can intuit various details about macro replacement: multi-line replacement lists will occupy only one line once replaced, macro definitions are only seen by the compiler if the macro is used, the compiler never actually sees preprocessor directives, etc.
For more information about the translation phases, I would recommend reading either cppreference.com or the drafts for the C/C++ standards directly:
- cppreference.com for C
- cppreference.com for C++
- C99 Standard Draft N1256 (section 22.214.171.124)
- C++11 Standard Draft N3337 (section 2.2)
Two Types of Macros: Object- and Function-like
Now, let’s see how some basic macros work.
There are two overarching types of macros: object-like and function-like.
Macros which take no arguments are called “object-like”. These are often used to store constants, as below:
Conversely, macros which do accept arguments are called “function-like”. They work similarly to regular functions.
The above code snippet would be expanded to:
Note that the semicolon is excluded in the macro definition and thus must be included in the call to the macro.
Variadic macros are function-like macros which accept a variable number of arguments. Here’s the example used by the GNU cpp docs:
__VA_ARGS__ identifier represents all of the arguments passed into the
macro, separated by commas.
Named arguments can be included in variadic macros. A custom variadic identifier
can also be specified in place of
__VA_ARGS__. Here’s an updated example of
As in the examples shown, variadic macros are often used to extend
There are some additional points involving variadic macros which we won’t get into here. See the GCC documentation for more details.
Tokens and Preprocessor Tokens
Before discussing the # and ## operators in the next section, it’s useful to first explain the concepts of tokens and preprocessor tokens.
In computer science, a “token” is the smallest piece of a program which is meaningful to a given language’s compiler/interpreter. Take the following line of C++ code:
After this line is tokenized, the resulting array of tokens would be:
This set of tokens is passed to the next stage of the compiler for further processing. Note that, while used for demarcating tokens, whitespace characters themselves are not tokens. Comments are also not tokens.
Now, while each language has its own set of tokens, C and C++ also have sets of preprocessor tokens. This means that the preprocessor interprets source code differently than the actual compiler.
So here’s what happens. Recall the above discussion about translation phases. When your C/C++ code is compiled, it is first parsed by the preprocessor. The preprocessor converts all of the code into preprocessor tokens. It then applies some changes (“transformations”) to the source code based on these preprocessor tokens. After these transformations are applied, the resulting source code is converted into tokens (not preprocessor tokens) for actual compilation.
To make this crystal clear, let’s run through an example.
The preprocessor would parse this code into the following preprocessor tokens:
Now that the preprocessor has generated preprocessing tokens, it must transform the code based on the preprocessor directives. The #define directives indicate that a macro substitution should occur, so that transformation is applied. Afterwards, the preprocessor directives are removed from the code. That leaves us with the following preprocessed code:
As you can probably guess, the tokens resulting from this code are:
Again, these are regular tokens, not preprocessing tokens.
As we can see, only the preprocessor is used to interact with preprocessor directives, so the compiler does not need to recognize preprocessor directives at all.
With these definitions in mind, let’s now talk about the stringizing (#) and token concatenation (##) preprocessor operators.
Preprocessor Operators: # and ##
In the examples above, macro substitution simply causes the compiler to recognize the replaced text as a set of tokens. This is great for many applications, but sometimes we may want a bit more control over this process. The stringizing (#) and token concatenation (##) operators allow us to manipulate how the preprocessor converts macros into tokens.
Stringizing Operator (#)
The # (single hash) operator allows us to stringize an argument in a
function-like macro. This converts the argument into a string constant. Instead
of interpreting the argument as a normal set of tokens, the entire argument is
converted into one string literal token. A simple example can be shown with
The code above would be preprocessed into the following:
Notice that the stringized argument ends up adjacent to the string literal that was already present in the macro definition. This is the correct way of using stringized arguments since adjacent string literal tokens are concatenated before actual compilation (in translation phase 6).
Token Concatenation/Pasting Operator (##)
While the single hash operator allows us to convert a token into a string literal token, the double hash operator allows us to combine tokens. This is called token concatenation (or token pasting).
As a simple example, token concatenation can be used to declare multiple variables of the same type:
This generates the following code:
Due to token pasting,
foo3 are complete, valid tokens.
Token concatenation can also be used for more complicated tasks. One prime example is creating X macros, which are macros that maintain two related lists. A common usage of this is to reliably generate a list of strings corresponding to the enumerators in an enumeration. Let’s see this in action. Say we want to create an enumeration with all possible color values for a given application. We also want to print these options out to the user.
COLOR_LIST macro results in the following code:
X macros would result in the final code:
The stringization and token pasting operators can be used for many applications of this concept.
Two Layers of Indirection
One important aspect of the stringization and token pasting operators is that they don’t expand macros themselves. As a result, an additional layer of indirection must be used to handle all cases correctly. Let’s see some examples.
As would be expected, the above yields “hello”. The following, however, does not:
It expands to “FOO”.
This is the correct implementation which works in all cases:
This correctly expands to “hello”.
GOOD_STRINGIZE expands the macro (converts
ACTUAL_STRINGIZE performs the stringization (converts
As mentioned, this concept applies to the token pasting operator as well,
As we start wrapping up this article, I want to touch on how the preprocessor differs between C and C++ and where the preprocessor is headed in the future.
For the most part, the C and C++ preprocessors are meant to work the same way. While this isn’t the case for every version of the two languages (the preprocessor in general has evolved over time, for example with the inclusion of variadic macros), the differences are generally few and far between.
Predefined macros, however, are slightly different between C and C++. The complete list of non-optional predefined macros can be seen on the relevant cppreference.com pages for the C preprocessor and the C++ preprocessor.
Additional macros are defined by different compilers and environments, but that’s beyond the scope of this article.
This all being said, the role of the preprocessor is changing a bit in C++20.
Modules are introducing two new preprocessor directives,
which are set to revamp how C++ projects organize code, making the
directive obsolete. Other language features are being shifted away from the
preprocessor as well, as the
<source_location> header will provide
alternatives to the
__LINE__ macros for debugging and tracing.
Running the Preprocessor Manually
Finally, let’s discuss how to run the preprocessor manually as we hinted to earlier.
Running the preprocessor by itself is quite straightforward. With GCC it can be done with the following command, which stops compilation after the preprocessor phase:
gcc -E <input> -o <output>
Alternatively, you can run the preprocessor (cpp) directly:
cpp <input> -o <output>
The resulting output file will be free of all preprocessing tokens, such as
preprocessor directives and macros. All macros will have been expanded and all
#include directives will have been substituted with the appropriate file.
Comments and extraneous whitespace will also have been removed. Additional lines
are added by the preprocessor which specify included files and line numbers,
along with some other diagnostic information.
Because all necessary files will be included, this file will likely be quite lengthy, with easily over 10,000 lines of code even for a simple C++ file making use of the Standard Library. Thankfully, searching for the name of the original source file along with the relevant line number makes finding expanded macros quite easy.
I’m hoping this article provides a good overview of not just how macros work, but why they work and how they fit into the greater C/C++ compilation model. While macros are finding less use as C++ evolves, they can still be used for very concise and efficient solutions.